LOTUS EUROPA S1/S2 WORKSHOP MANUAL
Section G -- Hubs, Wheels And TyresLotus Europa Central -- Tech Specifications -- S1/S2 Workshop Home -- Manuals Home -- Feedback
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'Bolt on' wheels of pressed steel construction are fitted to the Europa.
Loosen the road wheel securing nuts.
- Figure 1 -
- Figure 2 -
Break the fluid supply to the front caliper at its connection.
Fit plug to pipe to avoid ingress of dirt.
Detach the brake caliper (see section 'J').
Remove the split pin locking the securing nut and discard.
Remove nut and washer.
From the rear of the brake disc, remove the bolts, which retain both disc and hub.
Pull off hub.
These must be scrupulously clean if disc run out is to be avoided.
Replace the bearings as necessary.
Fit the hub and disc assembly, tightening the securing bolts to the torque loading given in 'Technical Data'.
Secure the hub with its nut and split pin, repacking with grease and adjusting end-float (Section G.2).
Refit the caliper. Remove plug from pipe end and refit pipe to caliper.
Tighten pipe nut to the torque loading given in 'Technical Data'.
Bleed the brakes (see section 'J').
Replace the road wheels and lower car to ground after removing chassis stands.
Tighten the road wheel securing nuts.
No adjustment is provided on the rear hub bearings, maintenance therefore being limited to fitting new bearings.
Loosen the road wheel securing nuts.
- Figure 5 -
It is suggested that whilst the bearings are of the sealed type, it is advisable to grease the internal surfaces of the bearing housing to help prevent corrosion.
Locate the outboard drive shaft.
Lining-up the splines, push on the rear hub and secure with its nut and washer.
Tighten the nut to the torque loading given in 'Technical Data'.
Replace the road wheel and lower car to ground after removing chassis stands.
Excessive misalignment caused by kerb impact or other accidental damage will result in severe tyre wear and faulty steering.
Steel wheels maintenance
Locally damaged flanges may be corrected by careful hammering but a buckled wheel, i.e., one which no longer conforms to the tolerances quoted, must be replaced.
Raise the vehicle and fully release the wheel nuts.
Pull off wheel.
When replacing the wheel, ensure that it is fully seated on the hub by carefully cleaning the mating surfaces of the wheel and hub BEFORE replacing the nuts.
Do NOT grease or oil the threads on either the hub or the wheel nuts, just CLEAN.
Ensure that the tyres are cold when checking the pressures.
Never bleed air out of a warm tyre in order to achieve the recommended pressure, since when the tyre cools it will be under-inflated.
If oil or grease have been in contact with a tyre wipe the affected area with a cloth lightly moistened with petrol or trichloroethylene.
The characteristics of tyres vary considerably therefore, if tyres are changed for those of a different type, then it is imperative that all tyres including the spare, are changed at the same time.
If trouble is experienced with replacement tyres, reference should be made to the manufacturers concerned.
Effect of temperature
Pressures increase more in hot weather than in cold weather and as a result of high speed.
Pressure in warm tyres should not be reduced to standard pressure for cold tyres.
'Bleeding' the tyres increases their deflections and causes their temperatures to climb still higher.
The tyres will also be under-inflated when they have cooled.
The rate of tread wear may be twice as fast at 50 m.p.h. (80 k.p.h.) as at 30 m.p.h. (48 k.p.h.).
High speed causes increased temperatures due to more deflections per minute and a faster rate of deflection and recovery.
The resistance of the tread to abrasion increases with increased tyre temperature.
It also causes structural failure due to excessive friction and temperature within the casing.
Pressures higher than those recommended reduce tread life by concentrating the load on a small tread area.
Excessive pressures overstrain the casing, cause rapid wear and make the tyres more susceptible to impact fractures and cuts.
Camber, Castor and King Pin Inclination (see also section 'C').
It is always advisable to check them if steering irregularities develop.
Wheel camber, usually combined with road camber, causes a wheel to try to turn in the direction of lean, due to one side of the tread attempting to make more revolutions per mile than the other side.
The resulting increased tread shuffle on the road and the off-centre tyre loading tend to cause rapid and one-sided wear.
Unequal cambers introduce unbalanced forces, which try to steer the car one way or the other.
This must be countered by steering in the opposite direction which increases tread wear.
Castor and king pin inclination by themselves have no direct bearing on tyre wear but their measurement is often useful for providing a general indication of the condition of the front end geometry and suspension.
'Spotty' wear may be due to a variety of faults, and if present, the following items should be checked:
Wheel alignment and Road camber
The condition takes the form of a sharp 'fin' on the edge of each pattern rib and the position of this indicates the direction of misalignment.
Excessive toe-in will cause fins on the inboard edges of the pattern rib.
Excessive toe-out will cause fins on the outboard edges of the pattern rib.
NOTE: Finning on nearside front tyre ONLY may be due to severe road camber conditions and cannot be eliminated by mechanical adjustment.
In this event frequently change the position of the affected wheel.
Tyre and Wheel Balance
The vehicle may also become more sensitive to unbalance due to normal wear of moving parts.
If roughness or steering troubles develop and mechanical investigation fails to disclose a possible cause, wheel and tyre balance should be suspected.
Static unbalance can be measured when the tyre and wheel assembly is stationary.
Dynamic unbalance can be detected only when the assembly is revolving.
There may be no heavy spot, that is, there may be no natural tendency for the assembly to rotate about its centre due to gravity, but the weight may be unevenly distributed each side of the tyre centre line.
Laterally eccentric wheels give the same effect.
During rotation the offset weight distribution sets up a rotating couple, which tends to steer the wheel to left and right alternately.
Dynamic unbalance of tyre and wheel assemblies should be measured on a Balancing Machine and suitable corrections made when the vehicle shows sensitivity to this form of unbalance.
Where it is clear that a damaged wheel is the primary cause of severe unbalance it is advisable to renew the wheel.
It is recommended that the complete assembly of wheels and tyres are balanced at intervals of every 3,000 miles (5,000 km.).
These are of the 'stick-on' type.
DO NOT use the 'knock-on' type (for steel wheels) with alloy wheels.
Commencing at Chassis No. 0218, selective assembly has been adopted in Production to ensure a good fit between hub and shaft.
A seal (Part No. 064 D 0171) is available which will assist in extending the life of the inner bearing.